Transbaikal region

  Baikal Lake

Baikal lake

 

Trans-Baikal

The Trans-Baikal Territory is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation. It is located in the eastern part of Transbaikalia. It is part of the Siberian Federal District and is part of the East Siberian Economic Region. The administrative center is the city of Chita. The area of ​​the territory is 431 892 km ², which makes up 2.52% of the area of ​​Russia. According to this indicator, the region ranks 12th in the country. The population is 1 078 983 people. (2017). Formed March 1, 2008, as a result of the referendum on the unification of the Chita region and the Aginsk Buryat Autonomous Okrug. Borders with the Amur and Irkutsk regions, the Republic of Buryatia and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation. The south and south-eastern borders of the Trans-Baikal Territory are the state border of the Russian Federation with Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China.    

The peoples of Lake Baikal

Ashabagata Bargots Bulagata Buryats Huns (Hun) Kurykany Merkits Olkhon Buryats Soyots Tofalars Khongodory Hori Evenki Ehirites The ancient inhabitants of Transbaikalia

History and Ethnography

As the centralized state folded and strengthened, its territory expanded, mainly through the development of new outlying areas. The vast expanses of Siberia from ancient times attracted the attention of the Russian people. News and rumors about the wealth of Siberia in furs (sables, beavers, ermines, otters, foxes), gold, silver, precious stones were the main reason for the advance of the Russian people to the East. Siberian furs in the XVII century was particularly appreciated and was the subject of profitable sales in the domestic and foreign markets. The conquest of Siberia occurred inconsistently geographically. By the end of the XVI century. was developed in Western Siberia. After that, the boundless expanses of Eastern Siberia were opened. With the conquest of the Yenisei, a whole stream of conquerors rushed to the north-east of Siberia. As a result, already in the first half of the XVII century. The basins of the Lena and Kolyma rivers were developed. Further Russian actions were transferred to the Amur and beyond. Simultaneously with the development of northeastern Siberia along a different route, a group of pioneers began to develop the Baikal region, which was the beginning of the development of the basin of Lake Baikal. First — the western part of it, where the Ilimsky jail was founded in 1630, the Irkutsk winter hut in 1632, the Bratsk and Ust-Kut jails in 1631, the Balagan jail in 1654, etc., and then — eastern, where the Barguzin jail was founded in 1648, Chita (in the beginning, the Ingodinsky winter hut) — in 1653, Nerchinsk — in 1655, Selenginsk — in 1665, Verkhneudinsk — in 1666. Baikal and the adjacent land were not only the territories of development, but also of great interest for scientific research. Here all strategic routes to the East began. It was here that the interests of such powerful empires as Russia and China were crossed. The first explorers were those who mastered and annexed these Siberian provinces. By the time of the appearance of the Russian pioneers, Baikal and its surrounding lands had long been inhabited by people. And the Russian advance to Baikal and the «Bratsk land» — Buryatia was very difficult. It was necessary to overcome not only the greatest natural obstacles: severe climate, rapid flow of rapids, heavy rails, impassable taiga jungle, impenetrable cliffs-clamps. An even more serious obstacle was at times resistance, rivalry between local, Buryat, and then Mongolian, Oirot, Manchurian feudal lords. And from time to time they managed to attract «black bone», «Podyasach people» to their side. That is, ordinary hunters-Tungus and herdsmen-Buryats. But in actual fact the «Moscow hand» usually turned out to be easier than the nomadic one. This, in the end, determined the state affiliation of the «Brotherly Land» and its heart — Baikal. But their development by the Russians took place slowly, gradually, not in the same way as the development of the taiga and tundra north of Siberia. In 1609, the Tomsk voevoda received a message about the Buryat tribe living in Siberia. Servants were sent to them to bring in the citizenship of the Moscow Tsar tribe dzhesarov, who lived on the Yenisei. The Jesyrs were brought into citizenship only formally, the yasak was not taken from them. At the request to give yasak, jesar said, did not expect the arrival of the sovereign, and before they came yasak from them took «brothers’ people.» So the Russians first learned about «brothers’ people» (Buryats). In 1613 in Tomsk it became known that the Buryats defeated the Arins tribe living on the Kan River and seized their yasak junk (furs) from them. The raid was carried out by the Ashehabat tribes of the Buryats by Tulkina Zemlytsia, the prince Zatygash.  In 1625-27, the atamans V. Tyumenets and M. Perfil’ev visited the territory of Pribaikalye for the first time and informed Moscow that this land was «populous, and rich in sables, beavers and cattle» and «Bukhara goods, roads and kindyaks and zendeney and silks: many, but there are many silver, and horses and cows, and sheep and camels countless. » Obviously, this circumstance served as an encouraging factor for the further advance of Russians towards Transbaikalia, as it attracted the gaze of the government. Thus, the search for «new earth» ended in the fact that by the second half of the XVII century. «the Russians became a firm foot» in the Baikal region. The first Russian explorers who reached the shores of Lake Baikal were detachments of Cossacks led by Kurbat Ivanov. However, here the opinions of researchers and local historians diverge. In some popular literature it is reported that in 1631 the ataman Ivan Galkin with a detachment of 30 men, having ascended the Angara and Ilim, placed the winter quarters higher than the current of the Igirma. He first crossed Baikal and left after 17 years Barguzin jail. Although most often mentioned is the name of Kurbat Ivanov, who in 1643 crossed the Primorsky Range and along the channel of the Sarma River left the oblique steppe to Baikal opposite Olkhon Island. For the name of the lake, explorers used the Buryat word «Baigaal», replacing the characteristic «B» for the Buryats with the more familiar «Baikal» for the Russian language. Even then, Kurbat Ivanov estimated the lake from an economic and strategic point of view. He was the first who made an approximate map of the lake and called it «The drawing of Baikal and the Baikal of the Fallen Rivers». In addition to the drawing, he also collected information about the fish of the lake and the fur-bearing animals of the coastal taiga. In 1646-1648 years the detachment. Ivan Pokhabov, the «jailer» of the Bratsk jail, passed through the Angara in winter to its source, crossed the Baikal on ice and reached Mongolia. Here he even managed to establish friendly relations with one of the most influential Mongol rulers Tsetsen-khan. In 1644-1648, the ataman Vasily Kolesnikov undertook a real «Circum-Baikal expedition» for «the conduct of Lake Baikal and about silver ore.» Departing from the source of the Angara to the north, it by land and water has bypassed all Baikal coast. During this campaign, in 1647, he founded the Upper Angarsk prison. In the following year, in 1648, Ivan Galkin set up a prison on the shore of the Barguzinsky Gulf. In 1652-1654, Petr Beketov, apparently the son of Ivan Beketov, the founder of Yakutsk, left the Bratsk prison and, following the route of I. Pokhabov, crossed the Baikal and through the Selenga Da- uriya, along the Khilok and Onon rivers, Argun reached Manchuria. On the way, he founded the Ivolginsky winter hut and the Nerchinsk prison. Over time, this Russian outpost became the military-administrative center of Russian Dauria. And then, in 1654, P. Firsov laid on the Angara, at the mouth of UNMI, Balaganskiy Ostrog. Thus, the base base of all Russian operations and enterprises approached Lake Baikal for another 300 km.  And in 1661 Pokhabov, but not Ivan, and Yakov, founded in the «corner of the place» on the high right bank of the Angara, 60 versts from the source, against the mouth of the Irkut River, at the confluence of the Ida River (now Ushakovka) in the Angara River Irkutsk prison. It was this small fortification that was destined to become the capital of Eastern Siberia. The development of the Baikal region was a complex and peculiar process. Its peculiarity consisted primarily of the fact that the vast territory of the Baikal region and Transbaikalia with a small population was annexed to the Russian state without the use of any significant military forces (in the overwhelming majority of cases, the pioneer detachments were counted by several dozen people). Another feature of the development of the Baikal Territory was that from the very beginning the government conducted a completely certain peaceful strategy here. In an effort to fortify the occupied lands and, at the same time, not having sufficient military forces, the government invariably gave the leaders of the ground-penetrating detachments recommendations to act against the yasak population without violence and brutal pressure — «gentleness» and «kindness», which to a certain extent influenced the folding good-neighborly relations with the aborigines. In the end, as evidenced by historical documents, these relations in most cases grew into friendly ones. Numerous tsarist letters, orders, memorable to the voevoda, the clerks of the jails ordered «people to offend people in insult and outcasts, do not repay taxes and violences». Among the features of the process of development of the Baikal region, the leading role of the jails and cities, from which the colonization of the region was carried out, should also be attributed. Attention is drawn to the fact that from the very beginning the colonization was carried out under the motto expressed in numerous tsarist punishments — «in all to seek state profits.» The detachments of servicemen were eventually sent to «see the earth» and bring «new high-handed» to the new sovereign foreigners under the sovereign’s hand. So, the main reason that prompted Russian people to look for «new earth» for their king, was at first the desire to find new payers of yasak. In addition to this motivation, soon there were others-the desire to acquire lands rich in minerals, convenient for engaging in land tenure, conquer and pacify foreigners (as they called the indigenous population of Siberia in XVII). To a certain extent, the whole process of movement to the east was spontaneous, although the government tried (or rather tried to) regulate it. In the process of settlement by Russian Siberia, it is necessary to distinguish several stages. This was due to various reasons that moved people from the European part to the unknown region. The first stage — XVI-XVII centuries. — the time of the initial development of Siberia. The main purpose of the settlement was due to the desire of the supreme authority to retain a busy, to the same very useful territory. With this, in the end, the interests of people from the people coincided, they sought a better share here. Thus, at this stage of settlement, the «aggressive» activities of the state and the people went hand in hand. At the first stage, the accession of the Baikal region also began. The second stage covers the 18th century, when colonization acquired a compulsory character. From that time Siberia began to gradually turn into a place of all-Russian exile and hard labor. Here the government began to resettle the most «restless», «unhelpful» or «harmful» elements of society. Moreover, the authorities tried to use the immigrants in the allegedly state interests, attracting for the distant borders, the development of agriculture and industry. At the same time, there was also a voluntary resettlement. The next, the third stage began with the XIX century. During this period, in connection with the activation of the socio-political movement in the country, the forced migration to Siberia of the Russian population continued. Along with him, in the conditions of post-reform development (when one of the key issues of the country’s domestic life was the overpopulation of a number of regions of Russia in connection with the peasants’ land shortage), the voluntary resettlement of the peasantry began to gain strength, hoping to get land in Siberia. In this issue, at this stage, the initiative of the state and the desire of the people have closed again. The abolition of serfdom resulted in a huge number of people being thrown out on the labor market, and social migrations became more intense. One can also single out one more stage of settlement — the end of the XIX — the beginning of the XX centuries. Since the 80’s. XIX century. the importance of emigration and immigration increased in Siberia. Moreover, migrations were carried out spontaneously, often contrary to the prohibitive policy of tsarism. For Siberia (especially Transbaikalia), a factor that changed the monotonous form of the colonization movement and, moreover, had great social consequences, was the construction of a railroad linking the Far East with Europe. We should especially highlight the reasons that led to the resettlement of the Russian population in Siberia. In addition to the desire to find in the unknown land the changes in their property status, some attracted «religious enthusiasm.» Perseverance in faith encouraged us to prefer separation from the Motherland. Persecution by the dominant religion forced the masses of people to retire forever from the Fatherland. Went to Siberia and because of discontent with the public order, with the hope on the side to realize cherished dreams. Dissatisfaction with public order forced the government to forcibly relocate people — government criminals away from the center — to Siberia, Transbaikalia. It was political exile. But the main reason, which primarily attracted to the distant edge of people, was at all times in economic conditions. First, the Russians, moving to Siberia, were looking for free land, goods, then work, etc. It is these needs that compelled people to go to Siberia to the masses. Progressive movement of Russians to Eastern Siberia was carried out in two ways: the northern way — through the system of the rivers Yenisei and Lena. On these rivers, Russian people moved while settling Eastern Siberia. As a result, in 1619 the Yenisei Prison was founded, then Krasnoyarsk. Eniseysk for a long time turned into a kind of capital of Eastern Siberia. All the «treasury» from the prisons was flocking here, the voevoda was sitting here, grain and military supplies were kept here, expeditions were sent from there to «explore» Siberia. Each expedition, sent to the depths of Siberia, had a special order. Galkin also had such a thing: «to impose an ashtray on new peoples» and place «accurately describe the place near Baikal,» but «what was the most important thing was to search for gold and silver for veins.» Barguzinsky Ostrog, built 40 versts from the mouth of Barguzin, was one of the most remote. For some time this prison becomes the only administrative, political and economic center, the main military center, a place for collecting tribute from the Yasak population, further development of the province, its subsoil, etc. From the Barguzinsky prison, servicemen went to collect yasak from the local population, they stored here the yasak collected from the local population — «sable treasury») — all supplies, hence reconnaissance to nearby lands, Barguzin soon became a place from which «all the conquests on the other side Baikal depended. » Russian historian M.K. Lubavsky noted that «the Russian colonies, in spite of their small numbers, lived sprawling along the vast expanse of Eastern Siberia, even» farming forced Russian people to disperse for long distances «. The settlement of Russian people was mainly carried out along waterways, the first bays were placed mainly on rivers. All the forts were based on a few detachments of Cossacks and servicemen. Recognizing their tremendous role in the foundation of the great unknown quarry, A.I. Herzen wrote in Kolokol: «A handful of Cossacks and a few deprived men went over the oceans of ice and snow at their own peril, and everywhere where tired little groups settled, in the frozen steppes, forgotten by nature, life began to boil, the fields were covered with fields and herds, and this from Perm to the Pacific. » Cossacks played a huge role in the development and settlement of Siberia. They here in fact were the first Russian settlers. They had to conquer, and protect themselves from the raids of nomads, and in the future — and guard the borders. In Siberia, they performed difficult and varied duties in the province: they not only guarded the borders with China, but also monitored smuggling, fished convicts, carried out police functions, escorted the exiles, and watched the guards at the factories. The mines, gold mines, in cities, etc. It is noteworthy that until the middle of the XVIII century. Cossacks actually ruled the region — they served as stewards in the jails, voevoda, customs heads. Later, these functions pass into the hands of nobles, specially sent officials. In this regard, the previous tasks carried out by the Cossacks began to go away in the past, and their official status is reduced. Gradually, they turned into representatives of the executive apparatus with administrative and police functions. Peaceful colonization of the region was preceded by the conquest of local tribes. It was for this purpose that military detachments of Cossacks were sent here. Until the end of the 17th century, the Baikal and Trans-Baikal jails retained the form of military fortresses. All this time, the bulk of the population consisted of servicemen, Cossacks, whose main duty was military service, the collection of yasak, management of the region. The local population was not numerous, and the territory is huge. Ostrogs and hibernations stood at a great distance from each other, there were not enough servicemen. Therefore, from the very beginning of the conquest, the government began to conduct a policy of settling land, which proved to be justified in the future, first of all by Russian peasants. This contributed to the consolidation of Russian power on the ground, strengthening and development of jails, establishing contacts with the local population.  Initially, the Russian population settled in intermittently with the Buryats and Evenks. There were cases when the Russians roamed with the Buryats and, on the contrary, some of them, adopting Russian customs, began to live settled. The same was observed as a result of contacts with the Evenks. An important feature of the Russian development of new territories was the preservation of territorial and national possessions and customs of aboriginal peoples. Behind them, the lands they previously used were used, such as hunting and fishing, pasture lands. The settlement of the province by Russians usually took place by «flowing» the settlements of the Buryats and Evenks or «interspersed» with the consent of the local population in its compact location of Russian villages. In the colonized areas, as a rule, there were no facts of forcible eviction and the more so the extermination of the aborigines. In general, in Siberia since its entry into the Russian state friendly friendly relations between local people and alien Russian people were formed. Historical studies have established that penetration into Siberia was due to the stubborn struggle of the supreme authority of the Russian state for the sources of furs («soft gold»), precious metals, and in general minerals. The most important goal was also the development of a plowed business. All this was the main reason for the purposeful and persistent settlement of the region. Since the emergence of cities in Transbaikalia preceded the appearance of villages, this predetermined the peculiarities of settling the first. As mentioned above, the first settlers of Siberian jails (future cities) were Cossacks, servicemen, then clergy, townspeople, peasants, exiles, etc. For a long time, such a social composition of residents remained here unchanged. The fact that the first settlers in Siberia were overwhelmingly from the Pomorian regions of the European part of Russia is explained by the fact that up to the second half of the 16th century, (until the Kazan Khanate was annexed in 1552), the way to Siberia went along the Northern Route — through the Northern Dvina and Pechora. And this, of course, left a certain imprint on the character of the subsequent advance of the population to Siberia. In the settlement of Baikal and Trans-Baikal, as well as the entire territory of Siberia, two streams were distinguished: legal-state and free-flowing. The first prevailed. They were Cossacks, streltsy, peasants, guilty nobles and boyar children, schismatics, etc. The second group included various «hunting» and «walking» people, landless peasants, runaway serfs, criminals who went to Siberia with the intention to change their property status.  There were also servicemen who came here to «eternal life». Such usually took with themselves (or wrote out) their wives, children, relatives, even slaves. At first, the servicemen of the jails were the only Russians in the province. Gradually the areas of their resettlement increased. In addition to military service people, people of civilian professions — clerks, accountants, doctors, officials, teachers, etc. — appeared in the province. Those who settled in the new land could not do without the church. Therefore, simultaneously with the service people, the clergy also settled in it. And they came here with their families. The life of the servicemen in general was very difficult. At first they were entirely dependent on the state. Until the end of the XVII century. on their maintenance from Moscow the annual grain and money allowance was sent. But, according to the documents, it was issued irregularly, often the servants had to beg, and sometimes it did not reach the jails at all. Therefore, it is no accident that in their unsubscribings the servicemen indicated that «the state service was served and the yasak was collected,» but «the fish were caught and the pine, and the root, and the grass were eaten.» Since the service in Transbaikalia was associated with extremely difficult conditions, its term was determined by 1-2 years. In fact, the servicemen carried it for a longer time. The state tried to attract various privileges to serve in Siberia. But, despite this, the number of those who wished to serve here longer than the deadline did not increase, so in most of the garrisons the jails were few in number. The main duty and occupation of servicemen, at first, was to collect yasak from the local population and to find «new peoples» and «new lands». The servants were practical guides to this governmental policy, which was sufficiently thought out and cautious. So, the servicemen watched the local population live peacefully not only with the Russians, but also with each other, because as a result of clashes between the clans, many of them left for the forests, where it was difficult to «lure them out»: Russian local authorities did not always acted with dignity. There is a well-known case when, after the attack of the Barguzin Buryats on the Kolenkursky clan (who voluntarily swore allegiance to the Selenga prison), Barguzin’s head Samoil the First «punished» the initiators of this clash by «taking cattle and stomach and yasir … for them for every threat.» This led to the fact that other aliens — «were afraid of the same mortal slaughter, fell back and scattered in the woods.» This happened in violation of the government’s orders, which required acting with respect to the local people «with gentleness» and «kindness,» even issuing funds for «bait», i.e. to treat yasak. The servants also carried out numerous administrative functions: they were clerks, tailors and customs heads, aldermen, tselopalniki, klozhechnik, lavoshnymi sideltsami, etc.  Gradually, the government stopped sending salaries to Transbaikalia. The servicemen began to receive cash allowance at the expense of the «sable treasury.» As for the grain pay, then, due to the difficulty in supplying bread, the government ordered the voevoda instead of him to give out to the servicemen of the land. So in the region there was a category of Russians who «served with arable land». Such servicemen later formed the main nucleus of the agricultural population of the region. Thus, servicemen began to receive their plowing. At first, for this purpose, the land was distributed within the boundaries of the jails, then next to it. Later, this practice of developing agriculture contributed to the appearance here of the peasants, the Russian village, and, on the whole, the economic development of the region. The tsarist government as a whole purposefully carried out a line aimed at colonization of the province, but not always its policy was loyal to the settlers. In connection with the growth of the wave of relocations ambushes were set for catching people who were going to Siberia to seek happiness. In 1822, free movement was allowed back and forth, in 1846 — again bans, persecutions, etc. followed. «The conquerors of Siberia with enthusiasm met every mountain in the mountainous country … and new villages were built where deer, moose, wild goats grazed before», — the researcher of Siberia VI wrote. Shunkov. In the absence of transport, roads, the transfer of grain to Siberia for the state was a costly exercise. Therefore, the government sent farming peasants to Eastern Siberia. These peasants received plots of land and cultivated it. As a duty for the use of land, they practiced «sovereign land», which was created here for the maintenance of the clergy and the clergy. If that was not the case in some of the uyezds, the peasants contributed grain in kind. The government was interested in increasing the agricultural population. For this reason, peasants going to the uncharted land were given privileges — exemption from duties for several years, lending money, seeds, horses. At first this loan was quite palpable, and the first settlers could create strong farms during the grace years. Free land was chosen for farming. Villages, as a rule, were placed along river banks. Arriving in Transbaikalia, the peasants brought with them seeds of crops — rye, oats, wheat, peas, millet, buckwheat. At the same time, many of them were engaged in gardening, growing onions, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, garlic, etc.  Noting the role of peasants — farmers in the development of the region, a well-known researcher of Siberia, VN. Sherstoboev wrote: «… not searches for furs, not intelligence of silver veins and gold placers, not commercial trade or industrial colonization of Siberia, and their development was the core of economic development … It consolidated the victory of the Cossacks, forced local peoples to lay down their arms, perceive the agricultural culture of the Russian peasantry and has forever made the Siberian space an integral part of Russia.The true conquerors of Siberia were not Cossacks and voevods, but the peasants who had been slaughtered … the peasantry was the main factor in the transformation Siberia in the Russian land … «. The peasants who moved here showed «an amazing example of skill in difficult conditions … to quickly and forever confirm Russian statehood.» For some 50-80 years XVII in the province there were many villages, existing to this day. As a rule, Russian resettlements were located on the most important key routes, which made it possible to populate and develop a vast territory, choosing the most favorable places for this. Along with the increase in the stock of servicemen, the peasant arable land also increased, and the «tsar’s tithe» arose. Each peasant family, no matter how much it could process the land, had to cultivate one tenth with a quarter of the sovereign’s arable land. The harvest from it was given to the tsar’s treasury. The development of agriculture in Transbaikalia required the farmer not only to work and skills. This had to be removed in difficult natural conditions. In many areas, it was impossible to practice sowing of winter crops. Early spring and autumn frosts, short summers, a small amount of precipitation, frequent winds — all this made it difficult to engage in farming. The voevody tried to take measures in this regard. Thus, Nerechinsky voevoda F.I. Soymonov, in «Estract (tractate — ed.) On the sowing of grain throughout Siberia,» submitted to the Senate, outlined measures for the development of agriculture. This shows that the government was looking for ways to resolve this issue. From 1583 to 1710 for the management of Siberia, there was a specially established Siberian order. During the XVII century, the voevodship department operated here, which carried out the police, financial authority, the issues of collecting yasak, taxes and courts, and it also dealt with the construction of new cities. The foundation of almost all Trans-Baikal Russian settlements was connected in one way or another with the activities of the voivode. As we move to Transbaikalia, with the foundations of the jails, «for the importance of local places», the voivodship authority began to be established here. Each of the appointed governors and clerks was charged with jails of «servants and merchants and industrial and walking and visitors of all sorts of ranks of the people of the Great Sovereigns with a great appreciation.» The latter was given special importance. At first this was almost the only function of the voivodship authorities, therefore, it was recommended to collect the yasak, so that it was «unseasonable before the former with a profit,» so that «the treasury was more profitable, and the jasad people not in insult.» So, in the XVII century., During the initial occupation of the Siberian territory, the government settlement went hand in hand with the free, people’s. Moreover, it is important to note the patronizing policy of the government regarding this settlement. The state made great efforts to settle the region by Russian people, since it was possible to retain a territory rich in minerals, expensive furs only in this way. Settlement, formed in the XVII century, formed a kind of barrier, around which the newly arrived population will be grouped, then the foundation of the Russian population in the province was laid.  From the middle of the 17th century, according to the manifesto of the Empress Catherine II, the families of the Old Believers were resettled from European Russia for Baikal. Part of the Old Believers was sent to Siberia by force under the escort of soldiers and Cossacks, and some arrived at their own volition. The Old Believers attracted free lands in Siberia, the absence of landlord tutelage, the benefits of paying taxes and duties, and the government’s help in relocating to new lands. They settled families, so the locals began to call them «family». And in 1665, through the Baikal, the head of the Old Believers, Protopop Avvakum, came to exile. In his book The Life of the Protopope Avvakum, he describes in detail the path along the lake, which he did on a boat. The book has value by the fact that the author in it gives the first literary description of the nature of the lake. After the Nerchinsk peace of 1689, the Russian state was finally established in Buryatia and Dauria. Time pioneers, «conquistadors, adventurers here ended. The time has come for researchers, industrialists, merchants, and farmers. Today, the Zabaikalsky Region is as beautiful and magnificent as it used to be. In some particularly difficult places, you can find even Trans-Baikal shamans, who still live in the thick of forests and rivers in their yurts and cry at night to the Siberian nocturnal gods. But since now the 21st century on Lake Baikal you can descend in a bathyscaphe and look at the bottom of the deepest lake. The Trans-Baikal Territory is included in a special zone and the Russian government is paying special attention to the observance of the cleanliness of this place. It is forbidden to build large plants here. Russia preserves and will preserve the Trans-Baikal Region as a beautiful point preserving all its beauty of nature on the territory of Russia. The Trans-Baikal region has preserved all the wonderful beauty of the past and carried it to us to the present day. All this can be seen with my own eyes coming here. And in this you will always help guide to Russia. Welcome to the Trans-Baikal region.
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