The origin of tourism in Russia
It is not known in which century and what year the foot of the first tourist stepped on the Russian land. People like to go to Russia now and also like to travel 500 years ago. Because in Russia there has always been something to see and wonder. It is known that in the XVIII century. there are the first guidebooks for St. Petersburg and Moscow, in the XIX century. — in other major cities of Russia.
Since the XIX century. excursions, hiking, traveling began to be used as a way of teaching in school, special and higher education, as well as for collecting scientific and geographical and local lore information about various regions of Russia.
The development of science, inventions in the field of technology, the appearance of railways, steamships — all this contributed to the rapid spread of both internal and external trips with different goals
In 1881, after the pilgrimage to the Holy Palestinian land was performed by the Grand Dukes, Emperor Alexander III signed a decree establishing the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society. This public organization acquired real estate in the Middle East and organized trips to the Holy Land.
Thus, tourism in the educational period developed in the following directions:
— pilgrimage trips;
— trips for the purpose of treatment and rehabilitation;
— individual travels of cognitive nature;
— excursion trips with educational and cognitive purpose for students of primary, secondary and higher schools
The main directions of tourism development were cognitive and recreational; greatly contributed to the enlightenment and spiritual enrichment of various strata of the Russian population, contributed to the knowledge of the fatherland and the formation of national identity. The origin of organized tourism dates back to the early 1890s. It is then that there are tourist-oriented societies: the Society for Natural Science Lovers (OLE), the Crimean Mountain Club, the Caucasian Mountain Club, the Mountain Sports and Crimean Mountain Group, the company for public trips to all the countries of the world Lipson, etc. In the resorts of the Crimea and the Caucasus for a small fees for members of societies and clubs began to offer short trips of cognitive nature. Founders of societies laid a solid foundation for the development of tourism in Russia.
At first it was walking tours, and then excursions using transport. The movement was carried out by horses drawn in carts. Over time, the carts were replaced with «rulers» — wagons on the springs, which created more comfort. When steamships appeared, the practice of traveling on water began to be practiced. In 1913, 10 million passengers took part in cruises. In 1914, the two largest ships of that time were built: the Grand Duchess Olga Nikolayevna and the Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolayevna. In the Crimea and the Caucasus, resorts were formed, where recreational types of tourism were concentrated. By 1913, Russia had 60 sanatoriums for 3 thousand places. The formation of the tourist business began, ie, the emergence of enterprises specializing in the service of tourists, such as hotels, cafes, restaurants and special shops. In Sochi, the complex «Caucasian Riviera» was built, which included 4 hotels for 360 rooms and a concert hall for 600 seats, equipped beach, courts, cars, medical building. In large cities of Russia, first-class hotels were built (National and Metropol in Moscow, European and Astoria in St. Petersburg). This period of development of tourism in Russia is also characterized by the development of excursion services. A wide range of activities on the development of tourism was carried out by the Russian Society of Tourists, formed on the basis of the Society of Cyclists-Tourists (OVT). OVT (another name of the Russian tourist club) appeared in 1895. At first the club was created with the purpose of development of cycling tourism in Russia, later its activity was connected with the development of different types of Russian tourism. The Society published the magazine «Bicycle», which was considered «as a test-stone for the development of tourism in Russia.» Since May 21, 1895, the magazine has become the official organ of the OVT. Subsequently, the magazine was renamed the «Russian tourist». The Society of Tourist Bikers had a charter, published guidebooks, worked out a map of the roads of the Russian Empire, established links with tourist organizations in the cities of Russia and Europe.
The OVT management concluded contracts with the owners of the hotels, where members of the society could stay on preferential terms. A special statement was developed, which indicated the full addresses of hotels, information about the owners, information about the premises and prices. By 1900, 14 committees for civil aviation in Russia were established, representative offices in 135 Russian cities were opened, as well as abroad in Brussels, Vienna, Geneva, London, Harlem, Milan, Munich and Paris. Friendly treaties were concluded with 12 foreign tourist companies in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, the United States and other countries. The hotels and restaurants of these countries also concluded contracts for preferential services. At the beginning of the XX century. The number of Russians who traveled abroad for tourist purposes grew every year until the outbreak of World War I
In the spring of 1900, at the Munich International Sport Exhibition OVT was awarded a gold medal for great services in the development of tourism. In 1901, a unified Russian Society of Tourists (ROT) was established on the basis of the OVT. Members of the society built tourist routes, moving not only on foot, but also on bicycles, horses, skis, participated in canoeing and sailing. Even the first round-the-world trip on a bicycle Anisim Pankratov was made. It lasted from December 30, 1911 to June 28, 1913
Thus, the entrepreneurial period in the history of Russian tourism was characterized, on the one hand, by the cognitive-excursion orientation, and on the other, the formation and development of various types of sport tourism. Tourism as a service sector and the economy sector was just beginning to be formed and wore mostly either an elite character or an enlightening propaganda one. The main purpose of tourism was to educate the broad masses of the Russian population through excursions and travel. Along with this, a base is being formed for elite rest and recreation, as well as a market for elite outbound tourism. This period also covers 1922 1928, when a new economic policy was introduced in Soviet Russia, the NEP. At this time, organizations of a commercial nature are being created, offering tourists and excursions of cognitive orientation to the solvent population of Moscow, St. Petersburg and other large cities of Russia, as well as rest in the Crimea and the Caucasus. In the years 1925-1928. functioning state joint-stock company «Soviet tourist» (State Unitary Enterprise «Sovtur»), which organized long trips on trains and ships on vouchers.
A short period of entrepreneurship was characterized by the creation of small and medium-sized commercial enterprises with a tourist focus. The tourist product was mostly excursion-cognitive and recreational. Distinctive features of the entrepreneurial period in the development of Russian tourism can be considered the beginning of the formation of the market of tourist services and the elitism of their consumption.
The entrepreneurial period is characterized by the following trends:
— tourist infrastructure is being created: restaurants, hotels, transport network;
— the tourist market is formed, in which two main segments can be traced: elite tourism for affluent layers and excursion (recreational) tourism for the intelligentsia;
— there are numerous tourist firms, offices, companies, clubs, societies.
In 1928, the Russian Society of Tourists was reorganized into the Society for Proletarian Tourism, and in 1930 an All-Union Voluntary Society for Proletarian Tourism and Excursions was created (OPTE). It included all the organizations on tourism, united in their ranks about 75 thousand people. Thus, a state monopoly in Russian tourism was established. The society had a clear organizational structure, which included cells created at industrial enterprises, in educational organizations, collective farms. In all republics there were branches of the society. In the Red Army, tourism was used as a means of educating patriotism and as a military sports training. Pedestrian and ski tourism was especially popular. For military personnel, educational trips were organized in places of civil war, in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Moscow and Leningrad. In 1929, the All-Union Joint Stock Company «Intourist» (VAO «Intourist») was founded, which was associated with the beginning of the development of foreign tourism and the streamlining of the reception of foreign guests. In 1931, for the accommodation of foreign tourists, the All-Union Joint Stock Company «Hotel» (VAO «Hotel») was created, 17 hotels were located in different cities of the country. Before 1941, about 100 thousand foreign tourists were accepted.
By the early 30’s. excursion and sports tourism is becoming a mass phenomenon, about ^ 00 thousand citizens take part in it. At the same time, a number of problems arise in the tourist movement, due to a weak material and technical base and a shortage of qualified specialists. For the urgent solution of problems at the AUCCTU, instead of the Society for Proletarian Tourism and excursions liquidated in 1936, the Central Tourist and Excursion Directorate (TPU of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions) was created, which was responsible for the material base and tourist and excursion services for the population
The development of mass amateur and sports tourism was carried out by the Higher Council of Physical Culture, under which the All-Union Tourism Section was formed. In 1939 voluntary mountaineering organizations of a military-controversial orientation were created, of which special detachments were formed during the Great Patriotic War. In 1940, tourist ranks are introduced, for special merit, tourists are awarded the badge «Tourist of the USSR».
By 1939, the resort industry was established in the USSR, with 1,828 sanatoriums and 1,277 holiday homes. During the Great Patriotic War, the activities of the AUCCTU TPU were suspended and resumed only in 1945. In 1956, the number of tourist bases reached 109, in total 179,300 tourists and 2.4 million tourists were served, services were sold for 17.8 million rub. In subsequent years, the number of tourist bases increased to 222. In the post-war years, sports, amateur, family and children’s tourism became widespread. In the 1950-60’s. All-Union children’s expeditions for sports tourism were held. Since the 1960s. the tourist-excursion vacation on weekends and holidays, tourist trips are organized. All kinds of tourist activities in the country developed with the support of the state and trade unions. In order to develop international youth tourism in June 1958, the Bureau of International Youth Tourism «Sputnik» is created. The Bureau was engaged in the exchange of youth groups of the USSR with other countries. However, in the period 1960-70-ies. only 0.4% of the citizens of the USSR left for foreign trips.
In 1960, the Central Council for the Management of Resorts and Tourism of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions was established, in 1969 — the Central Council for Tourism and Excursions of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. Both councils supervised the republican, provincial and regional councils.
The main features of the organizational-centralized period:
— development of social tourism;
— creation of a material base for recreational tourism (rest homes, sanatoriums, pioneer camps);
— development of family, amateur and sports tourism;
— Limitation of external (outbound) tourism.
Administrative and regulatory period (1970-1990).
The development of tourism in this period was in accordance with the plans, the fulfillment of which was compulsory. Plans were developed for a long time (5 to 10 years) and approved by the highest tourism authorities. Normative indicators of plans, which were taken as a basis for the development of the tourist industry and services, were subject to strict control.
This period is characterized by the further development of social tourism. Tourism is also used as a means of educating the younger generation. So, for example, in the 1970s. All-Union campaigns and expeditions of schoolchildren and youth were conducted. The objectives of such a massive tourist activities were the upbringing of patriotism and excursion-study of local lore, sports training and hardening. An important role in the development of child and school tourism in the 1970-80s. The Central Children’s Tourist and Tourist Station and the Department of Long-distance Travels of the Ministry of Education of the USSR.
In the 1980s and up to 1992, the material and technical base of medical and health tourism is growing, new hotel complexes are appearing in large cities of the country, new types of services are being introduced — family rest and coursework. During the course of treatment, vacationers lived in apartments and houses of the private sector, and the course of treatment and recovery was received at the sanatorium. It was well developed excursion service, carried out by a network of excursion bureaus (over 900 of them operated in the country), and recreational — on the basis of sanatoriums and rest homes. In 1985, tourist organizations provided services to 38 million people, excursions — 210 million. The highest rates of annual growth in foreign tourism in the USSR (10% at a world average of 5-6%) fall on the period 1976-80.
The main features of the administrative and regulatory period:
— development of tourism in conditions of strict regulation and planning;
— expansion of the geography of tourism (Siberia, the Far East);
— concentration of recreational services in favorable climatic zones;
— distribution of new forms of services (family rest, course treatment);
— formation of the largest and cheapest in the world base of social and amateur tourism;
— the creation of a scientific basis for the study of tourism;
— growth of foreign tourism indicators.
The transition period (since 1990)
This period of development of Russian tourism is characterized by the transition from administrative regulation of tourism to economic incentives based on new Russian laws relating to both entrepreneurship and the market as a whole and related to tourism in particular.
For the transition period, the following trends are typical:
— transition from a monopoly economy to a multistructure (tourist enterprises become the property of different owners);
— formation of the tourist market on the basis of new laws;
— use of tourist resources in the market on the basis of new economic and legal relations;
— change in the nature of demand due to the emergence of new types of tourist services (outbound shopping tours — trips for wholesale purchases, entertainment, adventure tours, language learning, etc.);
the lack of demand for the material base of tourism (hotels, boarding houses, rest homes);
the emergence of a large number of small and medium-sized tourist enterprises;
an increase in the average indicators of outbound tourism, especially for the purpose of shopping
In 2000, the development of tourism in the Russian Federation was characterized by the following directions:
further development of the tourist market;
improvement of the relevant legislative framework;
mastering of new technologies in the hotel business;
development of new types of tourist product;
use of computer reservation and reservation systems;
development of the educational and scientific base of tourism;
the creation of Russian tourist societies;
the emergence of monopoly structures in the Russian tourist market;
joint business with foreign firms;
activation of the promotion of the tourist product on the market.
Tourism in modern Russia
In modern Russia, tourism is developing rapidly. This is not surprising. Russia is the largest country in the world, and for a very long time can discover a new one for travelers. For the past 15 years, modern infrastructure has been built in Russia and now the traveler can move easily and comfortably in all 11 time zones of a huge Russia. The tourism industry is an important part of the economy. Annually in Russia the growth of tourists is fixed by approximately 10% relative to the previous year. Most cities are well-known cities such as Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Everyone knows the Hermitage and the Tretyakov Gallery, the Kremlin and the famous bridges of St. Petersburg, the Bolshoi and Mariinsky theaters. But this is only a small part of what a modern Russia can show a traveler. Unique lakes, the longest rivers in Europe, the highest peaks in Europe, the highest active volcanoes in the world, sea and ski resorts, curative mineral springs, ancient towns lost in forests, vast forest expanses, thousands of deep caves, arctic deserts, tundra, taiga, forest-steppe and steppes, world art values, unique collections of the best masters of an artistic brush. Which country can boast of this? In Russia there are 41 national parks and 103 reserves. The list of world heritage of UNESCO includes five Russian natural objects: the virgin forests of Komi, Lake Baikal, volcanoes of Kamchatka, the Golden Altai Mountains, the Western Caucasus.
In Siberia there is Lake Baikal. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world with a unique ecosystem. Baikal, the main center of tourism in Siberia. This lake is famous for its fabulous landscapes, amazing even for ecotourists. Here, the taiga and the semi-desert, the tundra and the stone steppe are side by side. The huge Siberian Taiga, covered with dense forests, is called the planet’s lungs. And the united Karelia with the Murmansk region is called the lungs of Europe. Volcanoes of Kamchatka, on the one hand, Elbrus — the highest point of Europe on the other. What would consider and understand the whole of Russia can take decades. But what would fall in love with Russia will last for several days.
The Far East — Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories — untouched by civilization, forest tracts, picturesque rivers and mountain spurs, wild animals and rare plants. Only here relict yew and Amur velvet, golden ginseng root and priceless aralia grow, conifers of the north and vines of the south meet in one place, and in the depths of taiga rivers reigns the Siberian salmon taimen. It is inhabited by the world-famous Siberian tiger — in the Sikhote-Alin natural biosphere reserve. Recently, in the Far East, the Leopard Land Reserve was established. It is home to the world’s rarest cats — Far Eastern leopards. Thanks to the state protection program, these unique predators have been preserved. Now gradually increase their population. On the territory of the commandment there is also an infrastructure for those wishing to look at this miracle. In 2016, Russia was visited by 30 million guests. In Russia, everyone can find something for themselves. From the endlessly stretching galleries of paintings by great artists to the longest forests on the planet, from the highest volcanoes to the infinitely deep and irresistible in its beauty caves. Russia is huge and beautiful. And anyone who visits Russia will not be able to forget this country ever again, and will necessarily want to return, in order to discover this country anew again. Russia is waiting for you, that would reveal its secrets. See you in Russia and welcome!
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