Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Karachai-Karakay-Cherkess Republic), the subject of the Russian Federation [Karachai-Cherkess Republic], Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, the republic in its composition. It is part of the North Caucasus Federal District and is part of the North Caucasus Economic Region. The capital is the city of Cherkessk. It borders on the west with the Krasnodar Territory, in the north with the Stavropol Territory, in the east – with the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, in the south, along the Main Caucasian Range – with Georgia and Abkhazia. It was formed on January 12, 1957 as the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Region, which in 1992 was transformed into a republic. State languages: Abazin, Karachai, Nogai, Russian and Circassian. Russian language, according to the Constitution of the Republic, is the language of interethnic communication and official records management.  

Karachay-Cherkess Republic

At the end of the first Millennium of our era, Karachay-Cherkessia included in the state of Alans.In the middle ages these lands were actively exposed to the raids of Turks and Crimean Tatars, and then the locals, who were mainly engaged in agriculture, and did not like to fight, appealed to Moscow asking for protection.With the first half of the nineteenth century (the Russo-Turkish peace of Adrianople 1828) the territory of modern Karachay-Circassia is part of Russia as part of the Kuban region.This step broke the habitual way of life of Karachay and Circassians. Lands were populated by Cossacks who are actively assimilated with the locals, that is why now on the territory of Karachay-Cherkessia is very difficult to determine the nationality of the population. Now here there are the most tolerant of Orthodox Muslims, and indeed the closest to the Russian mentality Caucasians.12 Jan 1922 formed the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous oblast with the center in the village Batalpashinskaya (later renamed the city Sulimov, Yezhovo-Cherkessk, and finally, received the modern name of Tallinn).April 26, 1926, the region was divided into the Karachay Autonomous oblast and Cherkess national Okrug.In 1942-43, these lands were occupied by the Nazis. According to Joseph Stalin, the Karachai was entered into regular relations with the Germans, helped the enemy. In the end, Stalin deported from their homeland to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan tens of thousands of Karachais and Circassians.Karachay Autonomous oblast was liquidated. The southern part of Karachi went to Georgia, and the remainder was annexed to the Stavropol region and Cherkess Autonomous region.After the rehabilitation of the Karachai in 1957 Cherkess Autonomous oblast was transformed into the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous oblast within the Russian Stavropol region.In 1990, the Council of people's deputies of the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous region adopted a decision to secede from the Stavropol territory and transformation in the Karachay-Cherkess Soviet Socialist Republic (CCSR) within the RSFSR, approved by the Supreme Council of the RSFSR the RSFSR law dated July 3, 1991.1989-1991 convened by the national movements of the separate congresses of the peoples of Karachay-Cherkessia began to turn to the leadership of the RSFSR with the request for restoration or the creation of a separate authority, such as the Karachai Republic, the Circassians, Abaza, Republic and two Cossack Republic, United in the upper Kuban Cossack Republic.Russian President Boris Yeltsin was prepared to accept the division of Karachay-Cherkessia, however, on 28 March 1992 held a referendum in which, according to the official results, the majority of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia voted against separation. The separation was not institutionalized and remained unified Karachay-Cherkessia.