The Kaluga region is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation. It is part of the Central Federal District. The Kaluga region is located in the center of the European part of Russia. In the XIV century, part of the Kaluga lands was under the rule of Moscow. From 1796 to 1929 the Kaluga province was an independent administrative-territorial unit within the Russian Empire and the RSFSR. The Kaluga region was founded in 1944. Borders with Moscow, Moscow, Tula, Bryansk, Smolensk, Orel. The area is 29 777 km ². Population – 1 014 570 people (2017), population density 34.07 people / km² (2017), the proportion of urban population: 76.04 [1]% (2017). The regional center is the city of Kaluga, located 143 km from MKAD.